I have been working on the next book, and in writing an introduction, needed to deal with global controls (applied to the whole image) and local control (applied to just parts of the image via painting into masks or adjustment layers.
This got me thinking about photography as an art and a photograph as a work of art. One can use Photoshop or other editing tools to correct an image to what was seen by the eye, often involving taming highlights and shadows, increasing colour saturation and adding local contrast one way or another so that textures show better in the image.
These are technical skills, learned and practiced until competent. You might think of this as craftsmanship.
It's beyond this point that artistry becomes the primary mover - making changes to the image to interpret reality through not just the eyes of the artist but the imagination.
this doesn't necessarily mean going way over the top - on the contrary skillful subtle changes to an image can dramatically affect how people 'read' the image. A serious look can be turned into scowling, a calm landscape into mysterious, a dramatic image into a brooding one.
It's the difference between having a computer play the notes as written and having a conductor and orchestra interpret the work. That's what fine art printing is about.